dinsdag 25 oktober 2011

Teaching with laptops

When starting my carier as a teacher, I had just two problems. My first problem was that the children in my class didn't always do what they where supposed to do. The second problem I had was with the subject matter, how could I let the children understand something so difficult as science? After a few years I got the hang of it and most of my problems where solved. Now I have a new problem! My classes all have a laptop and I have to do something with that! That changes a lot of my normal routine and I have to adjust my pedagogies and rethink about the Content. Maybe the TPACK model can help me.

What is TPACK?
The TPACK model (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) can be seen as an evolution of the PCK model of Shulman (1987). In the PCK model there is a Pedagogical component and a Content component. The Pedagogical Knowledge and the Contant Knowledge overlap and they form a new kind of Knowledge called PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge). The TPACK model, figure 1, is an expantion of the PCK model of Shulman (1987). Within the TPACK model is Technology been integrated in the PCK model. While integrating Technology in the PCK model several new overlapping areas were created. The TPACK model includes seven knowledge areas, (1) Technological Knowledge (TK), (2) Pedagogigal Knowledge (PK), (3) Content Knowledge (CK), (4) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), (5) Technological Content Knowledge (TPK), (6) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TCK) and (7) TPACK.

Knowledge of TPACK

Every area has its own specific knowledge area. TK is a dynamic knowledge because of the constant development of new technologies. Koehler and Mishra (2009) use the definition of FITness; use technology at work and in daily live, recognize when technology can be helpfull and conctant adapting to the changing technology. PK is the knowledge of the learning proces of students, how to stimulate a class and an individual. It also covers controling the class (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). CK is the knowledge of the subject that the teacher teaches. According to Shulman (1986) it also contains knowledge about concepts and theories. PCK is knowledge of Pedagogies for a specific subject. TCK is the knowledge about the way Technology and Content influence each other. Koehler and Mishra (2009) describe that a teacher should know how technologies interact and combine with specific content. Knowledge of the way technologies influence the pedagogies is called TPK. TKP involves the knowledge of teachers of the way technologies can change the way students learn and understand (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). TPACK is according to Koehler an Mishra (2009) the understanding of the influencing of TK, PK, CK. TPACK is the foundation of effective use of technologie in education.


When preparing my lessons to the laptop class I never think about TPACK in particular. Now I'm wondering, why don't I? Do I believe that TPACK isn't useful? Do I believe that the TPACK model isn't helpful? In my opinion integrating Technology in education is really necessary. And I think TPACK is a good model for thinking about the integration. I consider myself as a believer in the TPACK model, but still I don't use it for preparing my lessons. Maybe TPACK is a framework of the knowledge teacher should have and not a tool for professional development of teachers. Niess et. al. (2009) describes a
develpment model of the TPACK framework, figure 2. Niess et. al. (2009) recognized 5 stages of integrating technology into the PCK.
1. Recognizing: teachers are able to work with technology and recognize the alignment of the technology with the subject area. The teachers do not inegrate the technology in the lessons.
2. Accepting: Teachers develop an attitude about using technology withinh the subject area.
3. Adapting: teacher enact in activities that lead to a choise to adapt or reject teaching woth technologies.
4. Exploring: teachers explore the posibilities of integrating technology in the lessons. They actively experiment with using technology.
5. Advancing: Teachers evaluate the results of the decision to integrate technologies.
The model of Niess et. al. (2009) give me opportunities to think about the integration more as a proces. When I try to look at my own integration proces, as a teacher, I can recognize the different stages in the proces. As well as the hesitasion after a assignment that didn't go well.
TPACK is a framework that helps thinking about integration of technology. It can be helpfull measuring the integration level of Technology with teachers. But I think that there is a lot of researching and exploring the TPACK model.


Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What Is technological pedagogical content knowledge?                  Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education (CITE), 9(1), 60-70.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for        teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108 (6), 1017-1054.

Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 4-24.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform.  Harvard Educational   Review, 57(1), 1-22.

Niess, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Shafer, K. G., Driskell, S. O., Harper S. R., Johnston, C., Browning, C.,
Özgün-Koca, S. A., & Kersaint, G. (2009). Mathematics teacher TPACK standards and development

1 opmerking:

  1. Hi Patrick, thanks for your post, your reflection on your own work and mentioning the model of Margaret Niess. I was wondering how you see yourself in this model.. and can this model be used in designing professional development activities?